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The Probert Encyclopaedia of General Information

O

O is the fifteenth letter and the fourth vowel in the English alphabet. In English O represents six or seven sounds and shades of sound: (1) as in note, go, etc. (2) The similar short sound as in tobacco. (3) The sound heard in not, gone. (4) The same sound lengthened as in mortal. (5) The sound in move, do, tomb, prove. (6) The same sound but shorter as in wolf, woman. (7) The sound of u in tub, as in come, done, love. It is also a common element in digraphs, as oo, oa, oil.
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O-1 CLASS LOCOMOTIVE

The O-1 Class Locomotives were a series of British steam heavy main-line freight locomotives designed by E Thompson mainly built for hauling coal and introduced into service on the British LNER in 1944. The O-1 Class Locomotives had a power classification of 8-F and a tractive effort of 35520 lbs and a wheel arrangement of 2-8-0.
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O-2 CLASS LOCOMOTIVE

The O-2 Class Locomotives were a series of British steam heavy main-line freight locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley mainly built for hauling coal and introduced into service on the British LNER in 1921 as a development of the Gresley 3-cylinder type locomotive and being further altered in 1924, 1932 and in 1943. The O-2 Class Locomotives had a power classification of 8-F and a tractive effort of 36470 lbs, carried 7 tons 10 cwt of coal, had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a wheel arrangement of 2-8-0. The O-2 Class locomotives made possible 80-wagon trains between London and Peterborough.
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O-4 CLASS LOCOMOTIVE

The O-4 Class Locomotives were a series of British steam heavy main-line freight locomotives designed by J G Robinson mainly built for hauling coal and introduced into service on the British Great Central Railway in 1911. The O-4 Class Locomotives had a power classification of 7-F and a tractive effort of 31325 lbs and a wheel arrangement of 2-8-0.
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OAF

An oaf is a stupid or loutish person.
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OAK-APPLE DAY

Oak-apple Day, on May the 29th, is the anniversary of the Restoration in 1660, and was formerly commemorated by the wearing of oak apples or oak leaves, recalling the Boscobel oak in which Charles II hid after the battle of Worcester.
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OAKLEY GRANGE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oakley Grange was a British GWR Grange Class Locomotive (number 6823). The Oakley Grange was a fast freight steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 3500 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 5 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 28,875 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OAKLEY HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oakley Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 5936). The Oakley Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OASIS

Originally oasis was the name of the fertile spots in the Libyan Desert where there is a spring or well and more or less vegetation, but now the term is applied to any fertile tract in the midst of a waste, and often used figuratively. The oases of Northern Africa are generally river valleys, the waters of which are for the most part underground, or depressions surrounded by short ranges of hills, from which small brooks descend, sometimes forming a lake in the centre. In comparatively recent times oases have been formed in the Northern Sahara by sinking artesian wells. There are many important oases in the Western Sahara, in the Libyan Desert, in Arabia, Iran, and in the Gobi Desert of Central Asia. In ancient times the most celebrated oasis was that to the west of Egypt, containing the temple of Jupiter Ammon, now called the Oasis of Siwah.
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OAST

An oast is a kiln for drying hops. Often a collection of kilns are housed together in an oast house.
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OAT CHOPS

Oat chops is an American term for chopped oats served as animal feed.
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OATH

An oath is a sworn statement, affirmation, or pledge, usually based upon religious principles and often used in legal matters. In a court of law, for example, all witnesses must swear that the testimony they give is the truth. Another example is the oath taken by public officials when they assume office. Members of the British parliament swear an oath of allegiance to the monarch - which Sinn Fein politicians elected in Northern Ireland have refused to do, thus causing them to be barred from sitting in the house. Aliens take an oath of allegiance when they become citizens of the USA. Taking an oath generally implies some legal or moral sanction for failing to carry out one' s sworn pledge; a trial witness, for instance, may be charged with perjury for lying under oath. The oath has its origins in religious customs, and some form of binding oath can be found in every culture.
Oaths are administered to those entering such institutions as the military, secret societies, religious orders, and marriage.
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OATH OF ABJURATION

The oath of abjuration was an oath which by an English act passed in 1701 had to be taken by all holders of public offices, clergymen, teachers, members of the universities, and lawyers, adjuring and renouncing the exiled Stuarts. It was superseded in 1858 by a more comprehensive oath, declaring allegiance to the present royal family. Abjuration of the realm was an oath that a person guilty of felony, and who had taken sanctuary, might take to go into exile, and not return on pain of death.
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OBEAH

Obeah or obi is a form of witchcraft practised in Africa and the Caribbean.
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OBEDIENCE

Obedience is the carrying out instructions or commands; submitting to authority.
Obedience became an important topic in social psychology in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of extensive research by American psychologist Stanley Milgram which showed that a high proportion of ordinary individuals would obey instructions that involved inflicting severe pain on, and even the murder of others. Milgram had sought to show that German guards working at concentration camps during the Second World War were responsible for their actions, and that they couldn't use the argument that they were simply following orders. However, his research showed the opposite in a dramatic way. Obeying orders when disobedience results in punishment is understandable (even if not always morally justifiable), but Milgram claimed that many people would willingly obey orders, even if not threatened with punishment.

The subjects in his experiments were required to act as ' teachers' for a 'learner' who, unknown to them, was a confederate of the experimenter. Using a simulated shock generator, they were told to administer electric shocks, of increasing strengths, every time the 'learner' made a mistake. In some experiments as many as 60% of the subjects, when the experimenter told them to continue, administered shocks that they believed would seriously harm or kill the 'learner'. Although distressed by their actions, the subjects felt the experimenter was responsible. Milgram's work has not been accepted uncritically, most of the criticisms being levelled at the ethics of the experiment which led people to believe they had in fact killed an innocent man, although after the experiment they were reassured, but it has generated much discussion and stimulated further research.
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OBERLIN COLLEGE

Oberlin College is a privately controlled non-denominational institution of higher learning, in Oberlin, Ohio. It was founded in 1833, and known as Oberlin Collegiate Institute until 1850, when its present name was adopted. Oberlin was the first co-educational college in the USA. Two years after its founding the college admitted students 'without respect to color', becoming the first American college to do so; before the American Civil War it was known as a centre for anti-slavery activities. Charles Grandison Finney, professor of theology and president of Oberlin from 1851 to 1866, first promulgated at the college his doctrine of evangelical Calvinism known as Oberlin Theology. Oberlin has two divisions: the College of Arts and Sciences and the Conservatory of Music. The college awards the bachelor of arts degree in the humanities and the natural and social sciences; the master's degree in art history is also granted. The conservatory awards the bachelor of music, as well as master's degrees in conducting, music education, opera theatre, performance on historical instruments, and teaching.
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OBERLIN-WELLINGTON CASE

The Oberlin-Wellington Case was an American criminal case which occurred in 1858. A Negro named John Rice was captured near Wellington, Ohio, by Kentucky kidnappers. An Oberlin College student gave the alarm, and the kidnappers were pursued by a large crowd, who rescued the Negro. For this infraction of the law thirty-seven citizens of Oberlin and Wellington were indicted. During the progress of the case the greatest excitement prevailed over the entire country, however no severe penalties were imposed upon the offenders.
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OBERON

Oberon is the outermost of the satellites of Uranus.
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OBIISM

Obiism is serpent-worship.
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OBIIT

Obiit is Latin meaning 'he/she died', and the word is found, for example, in inscriptions on tombstones, followed by a date.
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OBITER DICTUM

Obiter dictum is a legal phrase meaning a casual observation, for example something said by the judge, while giving judgement, that is not essential to the decision. Some obiter dicta have persuasive authority in future cases, depending on the seniority of the judge who made the remarks.
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OBJECT

In grammar, an object is the recipient of the action of the verb in a sentence. The object can be a noun, a pronoun, a noun phrase, or a noun clause. Transitive verbs take a direct object and with some verbs there may also be an indirect object.
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OBJECT 2

In philosophy, the object is the correlative of subject, a term used to represent the distinction between the mind, or agent, or conscious being, or whatsoever it is conceived to be that thinks (the subject), and that, whatsoever it is, that is thought of (the object). The terms subject and object were first introduced in their modern relation in scholastic philosophy, and the distinction between them was at first merely logical.
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OBJECTIVE

An objective is a goal; a desired outcome; a result or end being worked towards or intended.
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OBJECTIVE CORRELATIVE

An objective correlative is a concept in drama suggested by T S Eliot in a discussion of Shakespeare' s Hamlet. Recognising that the hero's emotion in the play was excessive and inexplicable, Eliot suggested that dramatists must find an exact, sensuous equivalent, or 'objective correlative', for any emotion they wish to express. He gave an example from Macbeth where Lady Macbeth's state of mind in the sleepwalking scene is communicated to the audience by a skilful building-up of images and actions.
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OBJECTIVE GENITIVE

In grammar, an objective genitive is a use of the genitive case to express an objective relationship, as in the Latin timor mortis (fear of death).
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OBJECTIVE TEST

An objective test is a test, such as one using multiple-choice questions, in which the feelings or opinions of the person marking it cannot affect the marks given.
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OBJECTIVISM

Objectivism is a loose association of American poets such as Ezra Pound, Louis Zukofsky, William Carlos Williams, Charles Reznikoff, and George Oppen, whose major works were all lifelong open-ended enterprises, constantly updated. Poetry was seen by them as a process by which the poetic form begins with a particular object and then moves on by improvisation through verbal associations inspired by the original object.

In Philosophy, objectivism is the meta-ethical doctrine that there are certain moral truths that are independent of the attitudes of any individuals and also the philosophical doctrine that reality is objective, and that sense data correspond with it.
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OBLATION

In Christianity oblation is the offering of the bread and wine of the Eucharist to God.
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OBLIGE

To oblige is to compel by force, morally, legally or physically.

To oblige is to bind by some favour or kindness.

To oblige is to render a favour to; to gratify; to accommodate.
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OBLIGEE

An obligee is someone who is compelled by force or by having been done a favour, to do something.

In law, an obligee is someone to whom another is bound by some form of legal contract.
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OBLIGING

Obliging is an adjective describing someone as being willing to do favours; civil; courteous; kindly; accommodating.
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OBLIGOR

In law, an obligor is someone who is legally bound by another to do a certain thing.
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OBLIQUE

Oblique is an adjective meaning slanting. That is, not horizontal, not vertical, not perpendicular, not upright, not level.

Oblique is an adjective meaning not direct or straightforward. Hence disingenuous; evasive; indirect.
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OBLIQUE ANGLE

An oblique angle is an angle that is neither a right angle nor any multiple of a right angle.
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OBNOXIOUS

Obnoxious means hateful, unpopular, offensive, objectionable. Obnoxious is an adjective used only to describe people, and is stronger than the term offensive, thus someone obnoxious is more than just offensive, they are also objectionable, and hateful.
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OBSCENE BOOKS AND PICTURES ACT.

The Obscene Books and Pictures Act also called Lord Campbell's Act, was a British law imposed in 1857 which gave summary power for searching of houses where obscene books, prints, etc, were suspected of being kept, and for the seizure and destruction of such books, etc. The Act made the sale, or procuring of them with intent to sell, a misdemeanour, punishable by fine or imprisonment.
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OBSCURE

Obscure is an adjective describing something as being dark; covered over; not clear; clouded; not distinct; not readily seen; not easily understood.

Obscure can mean remote; little known. Hence the term 'an obscure work' describing a little known piece of literature, or musical composition.

Obscure can mean secluded; lowly; humble and is sometimes used to describe some positions of employment.
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OBSEQUENT

In geography, the term obsequent is used to describe a river flowing into a subsequent stream in the opposite direction to the original slope of the land.
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OBSEQUIOUS

Obsequious is an adjective describing someone as being unduly or servilely compliant; fawning, sycophantic.
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OBSOLETE

Obsolete is an adjective describing something as being no longer practised or used; outmoded, out of date. After broadcasting in the United Kingdom switched from being analogue to digital, old analogue receiving equipment became obsolete (no longer used).
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OBVIOUS

Obvious is an adjective describing something as being easily understood or seen; evident; plain. A fluorescent jacket worn by a cyclist makes them easily seen (obvious) to car drivers. The word obvious implies that the thing being so described lies so open to the eye or mind that it cannot be escaped. An elephant in the middle of one's sitting room is obvious. An ant in a corner of a crowded room is quite the opposite.
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OCALA PLATFORM

The Ocala Platform of the Farmers' Alliance congress was an American 19th century political group formed on December the 8th, 1890. It demanded the abolition of national banks; the establishment of sub-treasuries which should lend money directly to the people at low rates of interest; free coinage of silver; low tariff; the prohibition of alien ownership of land, and a graduated income tax. The group were so called from the place of meeting, Ocala, Florida.
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OCCASIONAL CAUSES

In metaphysics, occasional causes is a term employed by the Cartesians to explain the mode of communication between mind and matter. The soul being a thinking substance, and extension being the essence of body, no intercourse can take place between them without the intervention of the First Cause. It is Deity, therefore, who, on the occasion of certain modifications of our minds, excites the corresponding movements of body; and, on the occasion of certain changes in our body, awakens the corresponding feelings in the mind.
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OCCASIONAL TABLE

An occasional table is a small table with no regular use.
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OCCASIONALISM

Occasionalism is a term employed to designate the philosophical system devised by the followers of the 17th-century French philosopher Renee Descartes, who, in attempting to explain the interrelationship between mind and body, concluded that God is the only cause. The occasionalists began with the assumption that certain actions or modifications of the body are preceded, accompanied, or followed by changes in the mind. This assumed relationship presents no difficulty to the popular conception of mind and body, according to which each entity is supposed to act directly on the other; these philosophers, however, asserting that cause and effect must be similar, could not conceive the possibility of any direct mutual interaction between substances as dissimilar as mind and body.

According to the occasionalists, the action of the mind is not, and cannot be, the cause of the corresponding action of the body. Whenever any action of the mind takes place, God directly produces in connection with that action, and by reason of it, a corresponding action of the body; the converse process is likewise true. This theory did not solve the problem, for if the mind cannot act on the body (matter), then God, conceived as mind, cannot act on matter. Conversely, if God is conceived as other than mind, then he cannot act on mind. A proposed solution to this problem was furnished by exponents of radical empiricism such as the American philosopher and psychologist William James. This theory disposed of the dualism of the occasionalists by denying the fundamental difference between mind and matter.
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OCCLUDED FRONT

An occluded front is a weather front formed when a cold front catches up with a warm front. It brings clouds and rain as air is forced to rise upwards along the front, cooling and condensing as it does so.
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OCCULTISM

Occultism is the belief in hidden or mysterious powers not explained by known scientific principles of nature, and the attempt to bring these powers within human control by scientific methods. The medieval concept of occult properties included only those properties that may be revealed by experimentation. The alchemists, astrologers, seers, and others who practised this 'science' of experimentation were a small group, usually in conflict with orthodox theology. Consequently, their work was considered mysterious, and the term occultism gradually came to denote the study of supernatural forces. Nevertheless, all the so-called natural sciences stemmed from occultism, and early scientists were frequently called magicians and sorcerers because of the mystery attributed to their investigations by most of their contemporaries. Modern occultism is generally considered to have begun with the concept of animal magnetism, first developed by the Austrian physician Franz Mesmer in the late 18th century. Mesmer believed that certain individuals possess occult powers,
comparable to the powers of the magnet, that can be used to invoke the supernatural. In the mid-19th century occultism took the form of spiritualism, a belief that the spirits of the dead may manifest themselves through the agency of living persons called mediums. After the turn of the century occultism included serious investigations of forms of extrasensory perception (ESP) such as mental telepathy. Although still not within the usual area of scientific research, these are considered by some valid natural phenomena explicable by accepted scientific methods.
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OCCUPATION FRANCHISE

An occupation franchise is the right of a tenant in Britain to vote in national and local elections.
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OCEAN

An ocean is a great expanse of water which surrounds the land masses of the earth.
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OCEAN (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ocean was a British Jubilee Class Locomotive (number 45730). The Ocean was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 9 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 3.5 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,610 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), formerly known as the Deep-Sea Drilling Project until 1985 is a research project initiated in the USA in 1968, to sample the rocks of the ocean crust. Initially under the direction of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the project was planned and administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES). The operation became international in 1975, when Britain, France, West Germany, Japan, and the USSR also became involved. Boreholes were drilled in all the oceans using the JOIDES ships Glomar Challenger and Resolution. Knowledge of the nature and history of the ocean basins was increased dramatically. The technical difficulty of drilling the seabed to a depth of 2,000 m was overcome by keeping the ship in position with side- thrusting propellers and satellite navigation, and by guiding the drill using a radiolocation system. The project is intended to continue until 2005.
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OCEAN OF STORMS

The Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) is the largest of the dark plains on the surface of the moon. It is situated in the second and third quadrant.
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OCEAN SWELL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ocean Swell was a British LNER A-2 Class Locomotive (number 60517). The Ocean Swell was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 5000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 40,320 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OCEANOLOGY

Oceanology is the study of the sea, especially of its economic geography.
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OCHRE

Ochre is a yellow earth pigment derived from sands and clays around the world. Ochre consists of a mixture of silica, alumina and hydrated iron oxide. Ochre is one of the oldest pigments known to man, and produces a dull brownish-yellow effect which is stable, permanent and fast to light.
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OCTAVO

Octavo is the size of one leaf of a sheet of paper folded so as to make eight leaves. Octavo is usually written 8vo. Hence the term is applied to a book having eight leaves to the sheet. There are different sixes of octavo, arising from the different sizes of paper employed; as, foolscap 8vo, demy 8vo, imperial 8vo.
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OCTOBER

October (from the Latin octo, eight), was originally the eighth month in the Roman calendar, whence its name, which it still retained after the beginning of the year had been changed from March to January.
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OCTROI

An octroi is a station at the entrance of a town or department for the collection of local dues and tariffs within a country.
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ODABAGGAN

An odabaggan was a North American Indian sled used for transporting goods across snow.
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ODAXELAGNIA

Odaxelagnia is the sexual arousal by biting and nibbling. A form of mild Sado-masochism, gentle biting has been noted as an effective way of helping emotionally stressed partners become aware of their body. Biting is also recommended in the Kama-Sutra.
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ODE

An ode is a short poem, frequently of irregular or complicated lyrical form, usually written for some special occasion. The term was originally applied to the choric songs of the Greek dramas, and also to the poems of Pindar, Sappho, Horace etc.
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ODEON

Odeon (from the Greek odeion, from ode, a song), was a kind of theatre in ancient Greece in which poets and musicians submitted their works to the approval of the public, and contended for prizes. The name was later applied to a hall or chamber for musical or dramatic performances, and became the name of a chain of famous cinemas.
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ODIOUS

Properly, odious means hateful (the word derives from the Latin word for hateful). An odious action or person is one which is deserving of being hated, an action or person which is repulsive or offensive.
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ODNEY MANOR (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Odney Manor was a British GWR Manor Class Locomotive (number 7828). The Odney Manor was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 3600 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 5 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,340 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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ODYSSEY

The Odyssey is an epic poem attributed to Homer, in which the adventures of Odysseus (Ulysses) are celebrated.
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OENOCHO

An oenocho was an ancient Greek jug with a curved handle extending from the lip to the shoulder used for ladling wine from a bowl into a cup.
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OENOMANCY

Oenomancy is divination by means of wine.
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OF COURSE

Of course means naturally; as was to be expected.
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OFFENSIVE

Offensive is an adjective describing something or someone as unsightly or disgusting to the senses.
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OGDEN VS SAUNDERS

Ogden Vs Saunders was an important legal case in the US Supreme Court decided in 1827. Ogden, of Louisiana, declared upon certain bills of exchange drawn upon the defendant Saunders, a citizen of Kentucky, but then living in New York. Saunders pleaded a certificate of discharge under the Act of the New York Legislature of 1801 for the relief of insolvent. debtors. The District Court of Louisiana found judgment for the plaintiff. On a writ of error the case was brought before the Supreme Court, which decided in 1827 that the power to pass bankruptcy laws did not belong exclusively to the United States, and that the fair exercise of that power by the States need not involve a violation of the obligation of contracts; but that the State law could not discharge a debt due to a citizen of another State.
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OGHAM

Ogham (ogam) is a particular kind of writing practised by the ancient Irish and some other Celtic nations. Its characters (also called oghams) consist principally of lines or groups of lines deriving their significance from their position on a horizontal or chief line, under, over, or through which they are drawn either perpendicular or oblique; curves rarely occur. Authorities differ as to the total number of letters represented in the alphabet, some making sixteen, others twenty-five. Regarding the age of this form of writing it is now supposed that it was used not only in prehistoric times, but also so late as the 9th and 10th centuries. Stones with ogham inscriptions are found in Leinster and Connaught, also in some parts of Wales.
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OGMORE CASTLE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ogmore Castle was a British GWR Castle Class Locomotive (number 7035). The Ogmore Castle was an express passenger steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 8.5 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet and 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 31,625 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OIL GOLD SIZE

Oil gold size is an adhesive used in gilding carved or modelled work, gilding large letters in wood or metal and for large areas where a solid gold background is required. Formerly oil gold size was prepared from linseed oil exposed to the air until it became fatty and then tinted with ochre, driers added and thinned down with polled oil or varnish.
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OIL-CAKE

Oil-cake is a cake or mass of compressed linseed or rape, poppy, mustard, cotton, and other seeds from which oil has been extracted. Linseed-cake is much used as a food for cattle, its value as a fattening substance being greater than that of any kind of grain or pulse. Rape-cake is used as a fattening food for sheep. These and other oil-cakes are also valuable as manures.
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OIONOSCOPIA

Oionoscopia is divination from the flight of birds. It was popular in ancient Greece for mantike.
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OKEHAMPTON (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Okehampton was a British Southern Railway West Country Class Locomotive (number 34013). The Okehampton was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4500 gallons and a coal capacity of 5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 1 inches. The boiler pressure was 280 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 31,050 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OLD CONTEMPTIBLES (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Old Contemptibles was a British Royal Scot Class Locomotive (number 46127). The Old Contemptibles was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 9 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 3.5 inches. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 33,150 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OLDLANDS HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oldlands Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 6917). The Oldlands Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OLEOGRAPH

An oleograph is a picture produced in oils by a process analogous to that of lithographic printing, and resembling an oil-painting.
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OLIGARCHY

Oligarchy is government by a limited number of persons (generally a small executive class), as distinct from democracy (supposed government by all classes) and monarchy (government by one person - a king or queen).
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OLIVER BURY (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oliver Bury was a British LNER B-1 Class Locomotive (number 61251). The Oliver Bury was a steam locomotive used as a standard general utility locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a coal capacity of 7.5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,878 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OLIVER CROMWELL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oliver Cromwell was a Britannia Class locomotive (number 700013). The Oliver Cromwell was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4,250 gallons and a coal capacity of 7 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3feet. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 32,150 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OLPE

An olpe is a Greek oil-flask or small jug for storing oil or wine, usually pear-shaped with a handle.
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OLTON HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Olton Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 5972). The Olton Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OLYMPIADS

The Olympiads were the periods of four years between each celebration of the Olympic games, by which the Greeks computed time from 776 BC, the first year of the first Olympiad, until 394 AD, the second year of the 293rd Olympiad.
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OMEGA

Omega is the name of the Greek long o, the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.
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OMEN

Omens are certain signs or phenomena supposed to portend some impending good or evil fortune. Among the ancient Romans the taking of omens was a public institution of great importance.
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OMNIBUS

Omnibus (Latin for 'for all') is the old term for a bus (public passenger carrying vehicle) applied in several languages to the well-known vehicle used for the conveyance of passengers at a cheap rate. The concept of a public conveyance of this nature is due to Pascal of Paris in 1662 in consequence of an edict of Louis XIV, but they soon fell into disuse, and were not again reintroduced until 1827, when Baudry of Nantes reintroduced this mode of transport and called it an omnibus. The first modern bus to make regular journeys was first introduced in Paris in 1828 and introduced to London by George Shillibeer in 1829 when one carrying twenty-two passengers ran from Paddington to the Bank, charging a fare of one shilling. The original London Omnibus was a single-decker coach drawn by three horses arranged side-by-side. In 1832 the Stagecoach Act was passed, allowing passengers to be taken up and put down in the streets, and numerous types of omnibus appeared, including the knifeboard and express. Buses were introduced into New York in 1830, and Amsterdam in 1839.

In 1902 Thornycroft developed the steam powered bus, based upon the body of an existing horse-drawn bus, it had a re-engineered upper deck and was operated in London by the Road Car Company between Hammersmith and Oxford Circus via Notting Hill Gate. Such powered buses were restricted by a speed limit of 12 mph. In 1904 the London general Omnibus Company Ltd started operating a steam-powered bys route between Hammersmith and Piccadilly Circus via Kensington. Their buses accommodated fourteen passengers.
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OMNIBUS BILL

The Omnibus Bill was a bill submitted to the American Congress by Henry Clay on January the 29th, 1850, at the time of the application of California for admission to the Union. The bill provided for the admission of California with her free constitution; territorial governments in New Mexico and Utah without express restriction upon slavery; a territorial boundary line between Texas and New Mexico in favour of the former; a more effective fugitive slave law; and denial to Congress of power to interfere with the slave trade between slave States. After much cutting and amendment the bill was passed in July, 1850, as a series of acts.
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OMNIGRAPH

The omnigraph was an instrument formerly used for teaching telegraphy
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OMNIPOTENT

Omnipotent is an adjective describing something, or someone (usually a deity) as having complete, unlimited, power, force, control or influence. Nothing can be more powerful than something described as omnipotent. The word is sometimes used as 'the Omnipotent' as a title for God.
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ONEG SHABBAT

Oneg Shabbat is a Jewish celebration in honour of the Sabbath that takes place on Friday evening or Saturday afternoon and usually includes a programme of songs, a lecture and refreshments.
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ONEIDA COMMUNITY

The Oneida Community was a communistic settlement at Oneida, New York, founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes, of Vermont. They called themselves Perfectionists. They possessed property in common, believe in the faith cure, and permitted freedom of sexual intercourse within the limits of the community, which practice they deemed less conducive to selfishness than the ordinary relationship of man and wife.
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ONEIROMANCY

Oneiromancy is divination from the interpretation of dreams.
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ONLY FOOLS AND HORSES

Only Fools and Horses was a British BBC comedy series which run from 1981 until 2003. The series followed the trials and tribulations of wannabe entrepreneur Derek Trotter, his younger brother Rodney and originally their grandfather. When the actor playing the grandfather died, he was replaced by a new but similar character, 'Uncle Albert' the ex-Royal Navy sailor. The Trotter family lived in Peckham, south London, and the series followed their wheeling and dealing - from their famous yellow three-wheeled van - as they attempted to realise their dreams of becoming millionaires.
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ONOLATRY

Onolatry is the worship of donkeys.
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ONOMANTIA

Onomantia (onomancy) is divination from names, such as the number of letters in a name.
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ONOMASTICON

An onomasticon is an alphabetical list, lexicon or dictionary of the proper names of people, such as a book of 'babies names'. The original onomasticon was written around 180 AD by Julius Pollux and described Greek names.
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ONOMATOPOEIA

Onomatopoeia is the formation of words in such a manner that the sound shall imitate the sense. Thus, in the case of sounds, the words buzz, crash, roar, are evidently formed to imitate the sounds themselves.
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ONTARIO (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ontario was a British Jubilee Class Locomotive (number 45554). The Ontario was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 9 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 3.5 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,610 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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ONTOGENESIS

In biology, ontogenesis is the history of the individual development of an organized being, as distinguished from phylogenesis, or the history of genealogical development, and from biogenesis, or life-development generally.
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ONTOLOGY

In philosophy, ontology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of being. Although this can be taken to be the study of what it is for anything to exist at all, as in Heidegger's work, ontological questions are also concerned with what, in particular, exists. Thus our common-sense
ontology would include the material objects with which we interact (such as trees, tables, and mountains), but should it also contain abstract mathematical entities (sets and numbers) or the sub-atomic entities of the theoretical sciences (such as protons and muons)? Closely linked is the question of reductionism. For example, can minds be reduced to bodies, or mathematics to logic? A major question is how we are to decide ontological issues. Ockham's razor, the principle, formulated by William of Ockham in about 1340, that we should not multiply entities beyond necessity, is generally thought of as a principle in the theory of knowledge or epistemology, and was used as such by Russell. But in recent philosophy this has also often been linked to questions of meaning, as in logical positivism.
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ONUS PROBANDI

In law, onus probandi is the obligation to furnish evidence to prove a thing; the burden of proof.
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ONYCHOMANCY

Onychomancy is divination by the fingernails.
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OOTRUM

Ootrum is a soft, white, silky, and strong Indian fibre derived from the stem of Doemia extensa, a plant of the natural order Asclepiadaceae, abundant in many parts of Hindustan.
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OPAQUE

Opaque is a term meaning something which blocks vision through it, that is something one can not see through, like a solid brick wall for example. Opaque is the opposite of transparent.
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OPERA-GLASS

An opera-glass is a small binocular telescope of a low magnifying power, so called from its use in theatres. The two tubes are connected together, and have their foci adjustable by turning a milled-headed screw between them.
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OPERATION SPAM

Operation spam was a British police operation launched against organised paedophiles in the Rochdale area of Greater Manchester in 2011, resulting in nine men being jailed in May 2012. The operation was afterwards criticised for failing many of the victims, and leaving some thirty named suspects free from prosecution after the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) refused to use evidence from many of the victims. The men involved used kebab takeaway stores and private hire companies to front their operation, luring teenage girls aged 14 and 15 with free kebabs and alcoholic drinks, before taking the girls to flats, some above the kebab stores, car parks, remote spots on the moors where the girls would be raped by numerous men, one after another, who paid organisers in order to have sex with the under age girls.

The investigation started after one victim was arrested in 2008 after she smashed up a kebab shop where she had been raped. During her questioning about the offence she told police about the systematic rape she had endured, but no charges were brought against the men at that time, the CPS making the judgement that the girl was not a credible witness, despite also having DNA evidence from the scene of the alleged rapes.

Following the case, and media attention helped by a former detective who had worked on the case, and who left the police force in disgust and alerted the media to the shortcomings, Keir Starmer, the head of the CPS in England and Wales, said in March 2013 that he was unhappy with the way the police and prosecutors brought child abuse cases, and announced there would be new guidelines and hundreds of cases that had failed to result in prosecutions would be re-examined.

However, victims of the paedophiles in the Rochdale case advise other victims not to get involved with the police and not to give evidence because of the shocking way in which they were treated, which included being accused of recruiting other girls on behalf of the men, of being consenting, and of otherwise being generally complicit in their sexual exploitation.
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OPHIOLATRY

Ophiolatry is the worship of snakes.
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OPHIOMANCY

Ophiomancy is divination by means of snakes.
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OPHIUCHUS

Ophiuchus the Serpent-bearer, called also Serpentarius was one of the old northern constellations, representing a man holding a serpent, which is twined about him. The moderns, however, make a separate constellation of the Serpent.
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OPHTHALMOSCOPY

Ophthalmoscopy is a branch of physiognomy which seeks to deduce knowledge of a person's temper and character from the appearance of their eyes.
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OPINION OF COUNSEL

Opinion of Counsel is the advice given by a barrister or advocate in answer to questions put with regard to a 'case' or 'memorial' prepared by a solicitor.
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OPPOSITION IN POLITICS

In politics, the opposition is the party who, under a constitutional government, are opposed to the existing administration, and who would probably come into power on its displacement (generally the party which received the second highest number of elected representatives). Although at an early period in English history rival political parties existed, yet a regular opposition, in the modern sense of the word, may be said to date from the accession of the house of Hanover.
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OPTATIVE

In grammar, the optative is that form of the verb in which wish or desire is expressed, existing in the Greek and some other languages, its force being conveyed in English by such circumlocutions as 'may I', 'would that he', etc.
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OPTIMISM

Optimism is that philosophical doctrine which maintains that this world, in spite of its apparent imperfections, is the best possible. It is an ancient doctrine; among modern philosophers Leibnitz is its principal advocate.
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OPTION

An option is the right or power of choosing.

Option is the act of choosing.

An option is that which is, or which can be chosen. A choice. Sometimes when we have no available choice, we say we have 'run out of options'.
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OPTIONAL

Optional is an adjective describing something as being left to one's own wish or choice. Optional is distinct from compulsory. For example, a form may have compulsory fields which we have no choice but to fill in - perhaps our name and address - and also information which it is optional to disclose - perhaps our age and ethnicity.
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ORACLES

Oracles were the answers , which the gods of the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians etc, were supposed to give, by words uttered or otherwise to those who consulted them upon any occasion. Oracles were also the places or sources whence these answers were received. The credit of oracles was so great that vast numbers flocked to them for advice. Scarcely any war was waged, or peace concluded, or new form of government instituted, or new laws enacted, without the advice and approbation of some oracle. The Greek oracles were the most celebrated, the earliest being that of Zeus at Dodona. Of the other gods Apollo had many oracles, but that at Delphi held the first place, and it was often applied to for explaining obscure answers obtained at Dodona. Another famous oracle of Apollo was in the island of Delos.

The Romans had no important oracles of their own, but had recourse to those of Greece and Egypt. The early Christians ascribed the oracles in general to the operation of the devil and his agents; but the practices of the priests, the manner and circumstances of delivering the oracles, the ambiguity of their answers, and the art of accommodating them to all events, amply demonstrate their human origin; yet they long maintained their standing, and diminished in standing only with the freedom and independence of Greece. Under the reign of Theodosius the temples of the prophetic deities were shut up or demolished.
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ORANGE

Orange is a colour merging red with yellow. Among the popular shades of the colour orange, are:


  • Amber - A yellowish-orange.
  • Cinnamon - A brownish-orange colour.
  • Flame - A strong reddish-orange, reminiscent of fire.
  • Mango - A pale orange.
  • Orange - The colour of the ripe fruit of the same name, and halfway between red and yellow.
  • Peach - A pale, pinkish-orange.
  • Pumpkin - A dull brownish-orange.
  • Tangerine - A classic or standard orange colour, the same as orange.
  • Mandarin - Orange, but hinting at Oriental or Chinese.

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ORATION

An oration is a formal speech or discourse delivered in elevated and dignified language, the term oration being especially applied to a speech given on a particular occasion.
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ORATOR

An orator is someone who speaks eloquently. An accomplished public speaker; somebody who effectively delivers formal speeches. The term is also applied to people who advocate for a cause, especially to someone whose job it is to advocate for a cause or to campaign.
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ORCIN

Orcin or orcine is a peculiar colouring matter obtained from orchella. When exposed to air charged with vapours of ammonia it assumes by degrees a fine violet colour; when dissolved in ammonia it acquires a deep blood-red colour.
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ORDEAL

Ordeal is a primitive mode of trial of testing the guilt of an accused person based upon the belief that heaven will protect the innocent and allow the guilty to suffer. In England there were two principal kinds of ordeal, fire-ordeal and water-ordeal; the former being confined to persons of higher rank, the latter to the common people. Both might be performed by deputy, but the principal was to answer for the success of the trial. Fire-ordeal was performed either by taking in the hand a piece of red-hot iron, or by walking barefoot and blindfold over glowing coals or over nine red-hot ploughshares laid lengthwise at unequal distances; and if the person escaped unhurt, he was adjudged innocent, otherwise he was condemned as guilty.

Water-ordeal was performed either by plunging the bare arm to the elbow in boiling water, escape from injury being considered proof of innocence; or by casting the person suspected into a river or pond, and if he floated without an effort to swim it was an evidence of guilt, but if he sunk he was acquitted. It was at last condemned as unlawful by the canon law, and in England it was abolished by an order in council of Henry III.

As success or failure, except in a few cases, depended on those who made the requisite preparations a wide field was opened to deceit and malice. Besides these ordeals there were a variety of others practised in many countries, such as the corsned or hallowed morsel trial, the trial by touching the dead body of a person murdered, which was supposed to bleed if touched by the murderer, the ordeal by swallowing certain herbs and roots, etc.

After the 14th century ordeals became more and more uncommon. In the 16th century only the trial of the bier was used, and this continued even into the first part of the 18th century. In consequence of the prevalent belief in sorcery or witchcraft the ordeal by cold water was long retained in the trials of witches. These foolish customs were gradually done away, but isolated cases in some of the benighted countries of Europe happened until later. Ordeals were still found in many nations out of Europe, such as West Africa and other parts of that continent at least until the start of the 20th century. In Madagascar until the end of the 19th century trial by ordeal (swallowing the poison of the tree Tanghinia venenosa) was in regular use. The Chinese still retained the ordeal of fire and water at the start of the 20th century, and various ordeals were similarly practised among the Hindus at the same time.
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ORDEAL-ROOT

Ordeal-root is the root of a species of plant of the genus Strychnos, used as an ordeal in West Africa.
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ORDER OF ALCANTARA

The Order of Alcantara is an ancient Spanish order of knighthood instituted for defence against the Moors in 1156, and made a military religious order in 1197.
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ORDER OF FOOLS

The Order of Fools was a society founded in Germany in 1381, composed of noblemen and important gentlemen, the order engaged in activities for humane and charitable purposes. The members (known as knights) of the order wore an insignia comprising a jester dressed in a red and silver vest with a cap and bells on his head, yellow stockings, holding a cup filled with fruits in his right hand and a golden key in his left hand. The insignia was embroidered on the left side of the members' mantle. The organisation was disbanded in the early 16th century after it had degenerated into little more than an idle social club.
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ORDER OF GRAMMONT

The Order of Grammont was a monastic order established by Stephen of Thiers in 1076 at Muret, but afterwards in 1124 removed to Grandmont. The order became extinct at the French Revolution.
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ORDER OF HOLY GHOST

The Order of Holy Ghost was an order of male and female Hospitallers, founded by Guy, son of William, Count of Montpellier, towards the end of the 12th century, for the relief of the poor, the infirm and foundlings. After the middle of the 18th century it was united with the order of St Lazarus by Clement XIII.

Order of Holy Ghost was the name of the principal military order in France instituted in 1578 by Henry III and abolished in 1789, revived at the Restoration, and again abolished in 1830.
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ORDER OF ST CATHARINE

There are two orders of St Catherine. The knights of St Catharine on Mount Sinai are an ancient military order, instituted for the protection of the pilgrims who came to visit the tomb of St Catharine on this mountain.

In Russia the order of St Catharine is a distinction for ladies, instituted by Catharine, wife of Peter the Great, in memory of his signal escape from the Turks in 1711.
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ORDER OF ST CLAIRE

The Order of St Clair, or Order of Santa Clara is a religious sect founded in 1212 by a lady of this name, of noble birth, born at Spoleto, Italy, in 1193, she died in 1253, and was canonized in 1255. The order is divided into a severe sect, the Damianists, and a more moderate sect, the Urbanists. It has numerous convents in Europe and America.
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ORDER OF ST GEORGE

The Order of St George was a military order instituted in Russia in 1769 by the Empress Catharine II as a reward of military achievements. It consisted of four classes to which a fifth, intended for non-commissioned officers and privates, was added in 1807.

The Order of St George is an order instituted in Bavaria by the Emperor Charles VII. (Charles Albert) in 1729, and reorganized by King Louis II in 1871. Since the re-organisation the order, which had previously been a mere decoration for the nobility, it devoted itself to such services as the care of the wounded on battlefields, etc.

The Order of St George is an order instituted by Ernest Augustus of Hanover in 1839.

The Order of St George is a Sicilian military order, instituted by Joseph Napoleon on the 24th of February, 1808, and remodelled by King Ferdinand IV in 1819.

The Order of St George is a Christian ecumenical fraternity that was founded by King Karoly Robert of Hungary in 1326 as a royal and military order of chivalry. It has since become an international and ecumenical fraternity, drawing its membership from various Christian denominations in Europe and North America.

Knights and Dames of St George uphold the virtues of chivalry and through their charitable trust provide a service to humanity by financially supporting hospices, orphanages, homes for the elderly and other worthy institutions in the UK and Eastern Europe.

Membership to the Order of St George is by invitation of either the Grand Master or one of Deputy Grand Masters. The Order has active Grand Priories in Hungary (where it plays an important State ceremonial role and the nurturing of civic pride, as well as charitable and welfare work), Poland, The United Kingdom, Holland and other European countries.

Members of the International Knightly Order Valiant of St George have always made a difference in their world, and pursue traditions of excellence by compassion and supporting various works of charity. Membership is based on equality regardless of Race, Creed or Gender. Membership is open to men and women, men as KStG, and ladies as DStG. An invitation to membership will have little to do with a person's material success; rather it will be an acknowledgement of a person's character and integrity.
*Order of St James of Compostella
The Order of St James of Compostella was an order of Spanish knights formed in the 12th century to protect the Christian pilgrims who flocked in vast numbers to Santiago-de-Compostella, where the relics of St James were preserved. In time they attained great wealth, thereby exciting the jealousy of the crown, which succeeded in securing the grand-mastership in 1522, whereupon the order rapidly declined.
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ORDER OF ST MICHAEL AND ST GEORGE

The Order of St Michael and St George is a British order of knighthood dating from 1818. It consists of Knights Grand Cross (GCMG), Knights Commanders (KCMG), and Companions (CMG). The ribbon of the order is blue with a red stripe down the centre. The badge is a white star of seven double rays, having in the centre a representation of St Michael overcoming Satan. The motto is Auspicium melioris oevi.
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ORDER OF ST PATRICK

The Order of St Patrick is an Irish order of knighthood, instituted in 1783 by George III, originally consisting of the sovereign, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland for the time being (who is the grandmaster of the order), and fifteen knights; but by a statute in 1833 the order was enlarged and the number of knights raised to twenty-two. The badge of the order is of gold, oval in shape, with the cross of St Patrick surmounted by a shamrock in the centre, and round this is a blue enamelled band bearing the motto 'Quis separabit.' The badge is suspended to a collar of roses and harps by means of an imperial crown and gold harp. The mantle and hood are of sky-blue tabinet, lined with white silk.
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ORDER OF THE DAY

In British parliamentary language, an order of the day is a bill or other matter which the House has ordered to be discussed on a particular day. The same term is also used in the same sense in the proceedings of municipal bodies.
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ORDER OF THE ELEPHANT

The Order of the Elephant is an ancient Danish order of chivalry, said to have been instituted about the end of the 12th century by Canute VI to perpetuate the memory of a Danish Crusader who had killed an elephant in the Holy Land. It was renewed by Christian I in 1462, in 1693 by Christian V, and again in 1808. It is the highest of the Danish orders. The number of members, not counting those of the royal family, is restricted to thirty. The badge of the order is an enamelled white elephant, bearing on a blue housing, bordered with gold and crossed with white, a sculptured tower. The device is Magni animi pretium.
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ORDER OF THE GARTER

The Order of the Garter (originally known as the Order of St George) is a British dignitary awarded for chivalry. The origin of the order, though sometimes assigned to Richard I, is generally attributed to Edward III, the legend being that the Countess of Salisbury having dropped her garter while dancing, the king restored it, after putting it round his own leg, with the words, which became the motto of the order, 'Honi soit qui mal y pense' - Shame be to him who thinks evil of it. The date of the foundation or restoration by Edward III of the order, as given by Froissart, is 1344, while other authorities, founding on the statutes of the order, assign it to 1350.

The statutes of the order have been repeatedly revised, more particularly in the reigns of Henry V, Henry VIII, Edward VI, and George III in 1805. Ladies are said to have been admitted up until the reign of Edward IV. Until the reign of Edward VI the common title of the order was the
Order of St George, and it still bears this title, as well as that of the Garter. The original number of knights was twenty-six, including the sovereign, who was its permanent head; and this number is still retained, except that by a statute passed in 1786 princes of the blood are admitted as supernumerary members.

The peculiar emblem of the order, the garter, a dark-blue ribbon edged with gold, bearing the motto and with a gold buckle and pendant, is worn on the left leg below the knee. The mantle is of blue velvet, lined with white taffeta, the surcoat and hood of crimson velvet, the hat of black velvet, with plume of white ostrich feathers, having in the centre a tuft of black heron's feathers. The collar of gold consists of knots alternating with garters inclosing roses, with the badge of the order, called the George pendent from it. This consists of a figure of St George on horseback fighting the dragon. The lesser George is worn on a broad blue ribbon over the left shoulder. The star, formerly only a cross, is of silver, and consists of eight points, with the cross of St George in the centre, encircled by the garter. A star is worn by the knights on the left side when not in the dress of the order.

The officers of the order are the prelate, the Bishop of Winchester; the chancellor, the Bishop of Oxford; the registrar, Dean of Windsor; the garter king of arms, and the usher of the black rod. There are a dean and twelve canons, and each knight has a knight-pensioner.
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ORDER OF THE GOLDEN-FLEECE

The Order of the Golden-fleece is an order of knighthood instituted in 1429 by Philip The Good, Duke of Burgundy on the occasion of his marriage with the Portuguese princess, Isabella. The order later belonged to both Austria and Spain. The knights carry suspended from their collars the figure of a sheep or fleece in gold.
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ORDER OF THE NORTH STAR

The Order of the North Star is a Swedish order of knighthood, established in 1748 mainly as a recognition of important scientific services.
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ORDER OF THE STAR OF INDIA

The Order Of The Star Of India was an order of knighthood instituted in February 1861, to commemorate the direct assumption of the government of India by Queen Victoria, and subsequently enlarged in 1866, 1875, and 1876. The award was conferred for services rendered to the Indian Empire and consisted of three classes: 1) Knights Grand Commanders (G.C.S.I.) of which there were thirty members, eighteen native and twelve European, excluding the Governor-General; 2) Knights Commanders (K.C.S.I.) of which there were seventy-two; 3) Companions (C.S.I.) of which there were 144.
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ORDER OF THE STARRY CROSS

The Order Of The Starry Cross was an Austrian order instituted in 1668 by the dowager empress Eleanor, widow of Ferdinand III, in memory of the recovery of a fragment of the true cross from a fire in the palace. The Order Of The Starry Cross was conferred upon Roman Catholic ladies of royal or noble birth devoted to good works. The badge was a black double-headed eagle bearing a red-cross on a silver oval within a blue border, above the eagle being a scroll inscribed 'Salus et gloria'. A black rosette was worn for a ribbon.
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ORDER OF THE THISTLE

The Order of the Thistle is a Scottish order of knighthood. It was founded in 1687 by James II. The order consists of the sovereign and sixteen knights. The knights wear a collar of thistles, alternating with double sprigs of rue in saltire in their proper colours and pendant there from a golden star of eight rays, called the glory. Upon the star is the figure of St Andrew in a green and purple cloak, holding in front of him a white saltire. The ribbon is green. The motto of the order is Nemo me impune lacessit.
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ORDERS IN COUNCIL

In British politics, orders in council are orders issued by the sovereign, by and with the advice of the privy-council.
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ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD

Orders of Knighthood are the name given to organized and duly constituted bodies of knights. The orders of knighthood are of two classes - either they are associations or fraternities, possessing property and rights of their own as independent bodies, or they are merely honorary associations established by sovereigns within their respective dominions. To the former class belonged the three celebrated religious orders founded during the Crusades: Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights. The other class, consisting of orders merely titular, embraces most of the existing European orders, such as the order of the Golden fleece, the order of the Holy Ghost, the order of St Michael. British orders have included the Garter, the Thistle, St Patrick, the Bath, St Michael and St George, the Star of India, the Indian Empire, and the Royal Victorian Order. The various orders have each their appropriate insignia, which generally include a badge or jewel, a collar, a ribbon of a certain colour, and a star.
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ORDINAL

Ordinal is the prescribed form of service used at the ordination of clergy, as in the English, Roman Catholic, and Eastern churches. The ordinal of the English Church was originally drawn up in the time of Edward VI. It was altered to some extent in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, and again revised in 1661.
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ORDINAL NUMBER

An ordinal number is a positive, whole number which indicates an items position within a series, such as 1st 2nd, 3rd etc.
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ORDINARY

In English law, an ordinary is a bishop, or other person having peculiar or original ecclesiastical jurisdiction in a diocese, in contradistinction to extraordinary or delegated jurisdiction.

In Scotland the epithet ordinary is applied to certain judges in the outer house of the Court of Session, such judges being termed lords ordinary ; and the sheriff of a county is called the judge ordinary.
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ORDINATE

In co-ordinate geometry, the ordinate is the y-coordinate of a point (the vertical distance of the point from the horizontal or x-axis). For example, a point with the coordinates (9,6) has an ordinate of 6.
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ORDINATION

Ordination is the initiating of a Christian minister or priest into his office. The English Church considers ordination as a real consecration; the high-church party maintaining the dogma of the regular transmission of the episcopal office from the apostles down to the bishops of the present day. For ordination in the English Church, subscription to the thirty-nine articles is requisite. The ceremony of ordination is performed by the bishop by the imposition of hands on the person to be ordained. In most Protestant countries with a state church, ordination is a requisite to preaching; but in some sects it is not held necessary. In the Presbyterian and Congregational churches ordination means the act of settling a licensed preacher over a congregation, or conferring on him general powers to officiate wherever he may be called.
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ORDNANCE SURVEY

The Ordnance Survey is a British company producing maps of the British isles. The original work was carried out by the Royal Engineers under the direction of the Board of Ordnance and the survey was begun in 1747 for military purposes. The first map of Great Britain was ordered in 1797 and was published on a scale of 1 inch to the mile. In 1855 with the abolition of the Board of Ordnance the responsibility passed to the War Office and in 1870 was transferred to the Board of Works before in 1890 passing to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries where the work was still none-the-less carried on by officers and men of the corps of Royal Engineers, before becoming a separate commercial organisation in the later 20th century.

The survey of Ireland, on a scale of 6 inches to the mile was ordered in 1824. In 1840 the survey of Scotland and of the six northern counties of England was begun on the same scale. In 1855 the surveys were ordered to be on the following scales: 1 inch to the mile or 6 inches to the mile for the whole UK, with other scales for cultivated districts and towns of over 4,000 inhabitants. There were also surveys of the UK produced on scales of 2, 4, and 10 miles to the inch. The department also had the duty of preparing maps for all military purposes, and of copying those prepared by the intelligence division of the War Office. During the Great War it issued 32,872,000
maps, plans, and diagrams to the Army and Navy.
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OREGON SPECTATOR

The Oregon Spectator was the first newspaper printed in Oregon. It was established at Oregon City, and the first, issues appeared during February 1846.
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ORIBI (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oribi was a British LNER B-1 Class Locomotive (number 61014). The Oribi was a steam locomotive used as a standard general utility locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a coal capacity of 7.5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,878 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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ORIEL COLLEGE

Oriel College is a college at Oxford founded in 1326 by Edward II on the suggestion of Adam de Brome, his almoner, for a provost and ten fellows. St Mary's Hall, founded in 1325, was later united with Oriel College.
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ORIENT LINE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Orient Line was a British Southern Railway Merchant Navy Class Locomotive (number 35008). The Orient Line was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 5000 gallons and a coal capacity of 5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 1 inches. The boiler pressure was 280 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 37,315 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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ORIENTATION

Originally the term orientation applied to a turning towards the east or the direction of something towards the east. By ecclesiologists it is used in regard to the building of churches in a direction east and west.
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ORIFLAMME

Until Charles VII's reign, the oriflamme was the royal standard of France. It was originally the banner of the abbey of St Denis and its lord protector. When the French kings chose St Denis as their patron saint, they made the oriflamme the principal banner of their armies. It was a piece of red taffeta fixed on a golden spear, in the form of a banner, and cut into three points, each of which was adorned with a tassel of green silk.
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ORIGAMI

Origami is the art of paper folding.
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ORIGINAL

Original is an adjective describing something or someone as being the first in existence or order. Primary. The first edition of a book is original. The members of an initial list of items are the originals, subsequent entries are not described as being original. A painting is an original, as distinct from subsequent copies of the work which can not be described as original. The term 'original work' implies a creation made by the author, as distinct from being copied, derived or in imitation of another work.

A person may be described as original if they are given to exhibiting inventive, fresh, new ideas, rather than following the existing ideas and notions.
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ORIGINATE

To originate is to bring into existence; to commence; to invent; to create; to begin to exist; to start; to rise from a source; initiate.
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ORIGINATED

Originated means commenced; started; brought into existence; invented.
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ORIGINATING

Originating means commencing; coming into existence; starting; rising from a source.
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ORION

Orion is a constellation located on the celestial equator east of Taurus. It is a rectangular configuration with three stars in line near its centre. It is represented on pictorial charts as the figure of Orion, the hunter in Greek mythology, standing with uplifted club. Three bright stars (Orion's Belt) represent his belt and three fainter stars aligned south of the belt represent his sword.
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ORION (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Orion was a British Jubilee Class Locomotive (number 45691). The Orion was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 9 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 3.5 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,610 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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ORION'S BELT

Orion's belt is the name given to three bright stars in the constellation of Orion.
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ORMONDE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ormonde was a British LNER A-3 Class Locomotive (number 60057). The Ormonde was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 5000 gallons and a coal capacity of 8 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 220 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 32,910 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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ORNAMENT

In general parlance, an ornament is a decoration. That is something which serves no practical purpose other than to embellish or beautify that on which it is displayed, or simply to be admired itself, such as a small statue or figurine for example.
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ORPHAN

Strictly, an orphan is a child of which both parents have died. The word is sometimes extended to describe a child who has lost both parents for whatever reason, and hence the term orphanage which is the state of being without parents as well as the title of an institution for the care of parentless children.
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ORPHANAGE

Orphange is the state of being parentless.

An orphanage or Orphan Asylum as they were formerly known is an establishment in which orphans are provided for and were formerly also educated. In all well-regulated states the duty of taking care of destitute orphans was recognized at an early age, and it appears that the cities of Thebes, Athens, and Rome had establishments in which orphaned, deserted, and illegitimate children were supported and educated at the public expense (though recent evidence in Britain suggests that unwanted Roman babies were also murdered at birth). In the laws of Emperor Justinian there is frequent mention of such institutions.

In the Middle Ages such asylums were numerous and generally under the direction of the clergy. In the 19th century public orphanages were substituted or supplemented by the farming-out system, that is, the children were brought up in private families willing to undertake their charge. This system, with due care in the selection of guardians and judicious supervision, proved satisfactory wherever it was tried. Victorian writers described the system of farming out as 'more economical' and cited that 'the example of respectable family life cannot fail to have a beneficial moral influence, which is absent in the public establishments'. Orphans in Britain were dealt with under the poor-law. After the Second World War the system evolved and was taken over by a combination of state-operated social services and private charities.
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ORPHEAN

Orphean is an adjective describing something as being like Orpheus (the Thracian musician told of in classical Greek mythology) or his music, hence in popular language the word describes a sound as being melodious, enchanting.
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ORRIS ROOT

Orris Root or Iris Root is the root of several species of Iris, especially of the Iris florentina, which on account of its violet-like smell is employed in perfumery and in the manufacture of tooth-powder. It is also used in pharmacy as a pectoral.
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ORTHOEPY

Orthoepy is that branch of grammatical knowledge which deals with correct pronunciation.
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ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

Orthographic Projection is a term more specially applied to that spherical projection used by geographers in the construction of maps in which the eye is supposed to be at an infinite distance from the sphere, so that the rays of light coming from every point of the hemisphere may be considered as parallel to one another. This method of projection is best adapted for representing countries at a moderate distance from the centre of projection.
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ORTHOGRAPHY

Orthography is that part of grammar which treats of the nature and properties of letters, and their proper application in writing words, making one of the four main divisions or branches of grammar.
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ORYX (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oryx was a British LNER B-1 Class Locomotive (number 61004). The Oryx was a steam locomotive used as a standard general utility locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a coal capacity of 7.5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,878 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OSBORNE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Osborne was a British LSWR O-2 Class Locomotive (number W19). The Osborne was a steam locomotive used as a light suburban passenger locomotive on the Isle of Wight serving Osborne. It had a water capacity of 800 gallons and a coal capacity of 1 ton 10 cwt. It had a driving wheel of 4 feet and 10 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 160 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 17,245 lb. The wheel arrangement was 0-4-4T.
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OSCULATE

Osculate is an old term for kissing.
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OSCULATION

Osculation is an old term for the act of kissing (from the verb osculate, meaning to kiss). The term was in use mainly in the 17th century, later becoming a jocular term from its reference to close contact and being particularly and more usually applied to the mutual contact of blood-vessels.
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OSMANIEH

The Osmanieh is a Turkish order established. by Abdul Aziz in 1861 for the reward of services rendered to the state. The chief decoration is a golden six-pointed star enamelled in green.
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OSPREY (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Osprey was a British LNER A-1 Class Locomotive (number 60131). The Osprey was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 5000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 37,400 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OSTEND MANIFESTO

The Ostend Manifesto was a declaration made by Ministers of the United States in 1857 that Cuba must belong to the USA. In 1852 France and Great Britain, fearful of the filibustering expeditions against Cuba and the possible future favour of the United States toward such expeditions, suggested a tripartite convention in which each should disclaim all intention to obtain possession of Cuba and should discountenance such intention by another power. On October the 9th, 1854, the American Ministers to Great Britain, France and Spain, James Buchanan, John Y Mason and Pierre Soule, met at Ostend and drew up the Ostend Manifesto. This declared that a sale of Cuba to the United States would be advantageous to both governments; but that if Spain refused to sell, it was incumbent upon the Union to 'wrest it from her' (that is to invade it and take it by force), rather than see it Africanised like San Domingo.
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OSTENSIBLE

Ostensible is an adjective describing something as being professed; apparent. Usually something described as being ostensible is false, not genuine, and the deception is deliberate. The corresponding adverb is ostensibly.
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OSTENSIBLY

Ostensibly is an adverb describing the carrying out of an action in a professed or apparent fashion. The term ostensibly implies that there is a hidden reality being deliberately concealed and suggests suspicion or casts doubt on the real motive for the action.
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OSTEOMANCY

Osteomancy is divination by means of bones.
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OSTRACISM

Ostracism was a political measure practised among the ancient Athenians by which persons considered dangerous to the state were banished by public vote for a term of years (generally ten), with leave to return to the enjoyment of their estates at the end of the period. It takes this name from the shell or tablet on which each person recorded his vote. Among the distinguished persons ostracized were Themistocles, Aristides, and Cimon, son of Miltiades, who were afterwards recalled.
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OTTAVA RIMA

Ottava Rima is a form of versification consisting of stanzas of two alternate triplets, and concluding with a couplet. It seems to have been a favourite form with Italian poets even before the time of Boccaccio. The regular ottava rima is composed of eight eleven-syllable lines with dissyllabic rhyme. Lord Byron employed it in his Don Juan and Beppo, commonly using, however, ten-syllable instead of eleven-syllable lines.
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OTTERINGTON HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Otterington Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 6983). The Otterington Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OTTERY ST MARY (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ottery St Mary was a British Southern Railway West Country Class Locomotive (number 34045). The Ottery St Mary was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4500 gallons and a coal capacity of 5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 1 inches. The boiler pressure was 280 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 31,050 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OUNCE

The ounce (named from the Latin, uncia meaning a twelfth part of any magnitude), in Troy weight, is the twelfth part of a pound, and weighs 480 grains. Its original weight was fixed by Henry III, who decreed in 1233, that an English ounce should be 640 dry grains of wheat; that twelve of these ounces should be a pound; and that eight pounds should be a gallon of wine.

The ounce is a unit of measurement of the avoirdupois scale equivalent to one sixteenth of a pound, 16 drams or 28.350 grams.
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OUREBI (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Ourebi was a British LNER B-1 Class Locomotive (number 61026). The Ourebi was a steam locomotive used as a standard general utility locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a coal capacity of 7.5 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 26,878 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OUTLAWRY

Outlawry is the putting one out of the protection of the law, a process resorted to against an absconding defendant in a civil or criminal proceeding. It involved the deprivation of all civil rights, and a forfeiture of goods and chattels to the crown. Outlawry in civil proceeding was formally abolished in England in 1879.
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OUTRAGEOUS

Outrageous means immoderate, intemperate, extravagant. The word is used to convey a sense of exceeding the bounds of right, decency, morality or ethics.
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OUTSIDE-CAR

An outside-car (Irish Car) was an Irish horse-drawn vehicle consisting mainly of a broad board, carried above a single pair of wheels. The passengers sat on the board back to back, with their feet resting on a lower board, the driver sitting on the right-hand side of the vehicle. Outside-cars were a popular form of cab used in Dublin around 1900.
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OVAL

Oval describes a figure having the shape of figure of an egg, hence rectangular and curvilinear with both ends about the same breadth. The oval has a general resemblance to the ellipse, but, unlike the latter, it is not symmetrical, being broader at one end than at the other.
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OVEN

An oven is a close chamber of any description in which a considerable degree of heat may be generated. Ovens are used for baking, heating, or drying substances. In English the term is usually restricted to a close chamber for cooking such as baking bread and cooking other food substances, but ovens are also used for coking coal, in the arts of metallurgy, in glass-making, pottery, etc. Since the 19th century there has been a great diversity in the shape and materials of construction, and modes of heating ovens.
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OVERACHIEVER

An overachiever is someone who achieves more than they are expected or predicted to achieve.
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OVERHEAD

Overhead means above one's head; on an upper floor; on high; situated above ; passing through the air above one; pertaining to what is above or aloft.
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OVERLAND ROUTE TO INDIA

Before the invention of the aeroplane, travel to India from England was by what was known as The Overland Route to India. This was the name of the route via Dover, Calais, Paris, Macon, the Mont Cenis Tunnel, and Bologna, to Brindisi, thence by steamer to Alexandria, from there by railway to Suez, thence by steamer to the destined Indian port. Alternative routes are from Marseilles or Venice by steamer to Alexandria, and thence by rail to Suez.
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OVERTON GRANGE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Overton Grange was a British GWR Grange Class Locomotive (number 6879). The Overton Grange was a fast freight steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 3500 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 5 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 28,875 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OWEN GLENDOWER (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Owen Glendower was a Britannia Class locomotive (number 700010). The Owen Glendower was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4,250 gallons and a coal capacity of 7 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3feet. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 32,150 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OWEN TUDOR (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Owen Tudor was a British LNER A-2 Class Locomotive (number 60520). The Owen Tudor was a steam locomotive used as an express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 5000 gallons and a coal capacity of 9 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 2 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 2 inches. The boiler pressure was 250 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 40,320 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-2.
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OWENS COLLEGE

Owens College is a college in Manchester. It was established under the will of John Owens, a Manchester merchant, who died in 1846, and left about 100,000 pounds sterling for the purpose of founding an institution for providing a university education, in which theological and religious subjects should form no part of the instruction given. Teaching commenced in 1851, and the Gothic building for the accommodation of the college was completed in 1873. The increasing success of the college led to the establishment of a new University, Victoria University, to consist of Owens College and several affiliated colleges located in different towns, but having its headquarters in Manchester. The Victoria University was instituted by royal charter in 1880, with power to grant degrees in arts, science, and law, a supplemental charter, granted in May, 1883, giving power to grant degrees in medicine. University College, Liverpool, was incorporated with it in 1884, and the Yorkshire College, Leeds, in 1888; but in 1903 the former was constituted a separate university, and next year the Leeds college also became a separate university; while Victoria University remained as an independent institution - the University of Manchester.
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OWSDEN HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Owsden Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 6984). The Owsden Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OXBOW

An oxbow is a piece of wood comprising a concave curve between two convex curves, thereby resembling a bow in appearance, used as a collar for a yoked ox, the ends being fastened to the yoke. The term is used in furniture to describe draws and the like which have a similar serpentine shape.
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OXBURGH HALL (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oxburgh Hall was a British GWR Hall Class Locomotive (number 6958). The Oxburgh Hall was a general purpose steam locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4000 gallons and a coal capacity of 6 tons. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and a bogie wheel of 3 feet. The boiler pressure was 225 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 27,275 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-6-0.
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OXFORD BLUE

Oxford blue is a dark occasionally purplish blue colour which was adopted as the colour of Oxford University.
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OXFORD UNIVERSITY

Oxford University is one of the two great English universities, established in the middle ages, and situated in the city of Oxford. Like Cambridge it embraces a number of colleges forming distinct corporations, of which the oldest is believed to be University College, dating from 1253, though Merton College was the first to adopt the collegiate system proper. The following list contains the name of the colleges, with the year when each was founded:


There are also two 'Halls', St Mary Hall and St Edmund Hall, which are similar institutions, but differ from the colleges in not being corporate bodies.

Oxford University is an institution of the same character as that of Cambridge. Most of the students belong to and reside in some college (or hall), but since 1869 a certain number have been admitted without belonging to any of these institutions. The students receive most of their instruction from tutors attached to the individual colleges, and those of each college dine together in the college hall and attend the college chapel. The ordinary students are called 'commoners'. The style or title by which the corporation is known is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Oxford. The head of the university is the chancellor. The university is open without respect of birth, age, or creed, to all who have passed the necessary examinations or other tests. Women were first admitted to the examinations in 1884, but did not receive degrees.
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OXFORD'S ASSAULT

On the 10th of June, 1840, Edward Oxford a youth who had been a servant in a public house, discharged two pistols at queen Victoria and Prince Albert, as they were proceeding up Constitution-hill in an open phaeton from Buckingham palace. He stood within a few yards of the carriage, but no one was injured. Oxford was tried at the Old Bailey in July of the same year and was adjudged to be insane and sent first to Bethlehem hospital, next to Broadmoor, and released in 1868 on condition that he left the country.
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OXFORDSHIRE (LOCOMOTIVE)

The Oxfordshire was a British LNER D-49 Class Locomotive (number 62702). The Oxfordshire was a steam locomotive used as a light express passenger locomotive. It had a water capacity of 4200 gallons and a coal capacity of 7 tons 10 cwt. It had a driving wheel of 6 feet and 8 inches and a bogie wheel of 3 feet 1.25 inches. The boiler pressure was 180 lb per square inch and it had a tractive effort of 21,555 lb. The wheel arrangement was 4-4-0.
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OXYGON

In geometry, an oxygon is a triangle having three acute angles.
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OXYMORON

An oxymoron is a figure of speech in which an epithet of a contrary signification is added to a word. For example 'cruel kindness' or 'laborious idleness'.
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OYEZ

Oyez (or oyes) is a term repeated three times, as Oyez! Oyez! Oyez!, and used by town criers and the criers of courts to secure silence before making a proclamation.
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