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The Probert Encyclopaedia of Architecture


Picture of H_Pot

The H pot was a style of British clay chimney pot so named because of its resemblance to a capital letter H. The H pot comprised a ingle tip terminated with a cross member to each end of which was a vertical pot open at both ends. The design being intended to reduce the possibility of wind blowing the smoke back down the chimney into the habitation.
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A ha-ha is a ditch serving the purpose of a hedge, but without interfering with the view.
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Habitacle is an old word for a dwelling, or habitation. The name is sometimes applied in architecture to a niche for a statue.
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Picture of Half_Round

In architecture a half round is a moulding of semicircular section.
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Picture of Half-Timbered

In architecture half-timbered (formerly also known as post-and-pan in some parts of the country) refers to buildings constructed of a timber frame, having the spaces filled in with masonry. This style of decoration was extensively practised in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries and in England during the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I and enjoyed a revival during the late 19th century.
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In architecture a halfpace is a platform of a staircase where the stair turns back in exactly the reverse direction of the lower flight.
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In architecture, hallyngs were hangings for the hall.
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In architecture a halpace is a raised floor in a bay-window, before a fire-place, or in similar situations. The floors in such places are often a step higher than the rest in old English houses. The term halpace is also given to the dais in a hall and also to a raised stage or platform, and a landing in a flight of stairs.
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In Scotland, a hammel is a cow-shed or a hovel.
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Picture of Hammer-Beam

A hammer-beam is a short beam attached to the foot of a principal rafter in a roof, in the place of the tie-beam. Hammer-beams are used in pairs, and project from the wall, extending less than half-way across the apartments. The hammer-beam is generally supported by a rib rising up from a corbel below; and in its turn forms the support of another rib, constituting with that springing from the opposite hammer-beam an arch. The ends of hammer-beams are often ornamented with heads, shields, or foliage, and sometimes with figures; those of the roof of Westminster hall are carved with large angels holding shields; sometimes there are pendants under them, as at the hall of Eltham palace.
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The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were four acres of gardens raised on a base supported by pillars, and towering in terraces one above another 100 meters in height. At a distance they looked like a vast pyramid covered with trees. The gardens were constructed by Nebuchadnezzar to gratify his wife who was bored with the flat plains of Babylon, and longed for something to remind her of her native Median hills.
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In architecture a hanging rail is a rail of a door or casement to which hinges are attached.
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In architecture a hanging stile is a stile of a door to which hinges are secured or the upright of a window frame to which casements are hinged, or in which the pulleys for sash windows are fastened.
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In architecture, a hanging-buttress is a buttress supported on a corbel.
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In architecture a hanse is a part of an elliptical or many-cantered arch which has the shorter radius and immediately adjoins the impost.
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In architecture a hard finish is a smooth finishing coat of hard fine plaster applied to the surface of rough plastering.
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Hardboard is a type of building board composed of wood pulp, wood fibre or other vegetable fibre mixed with fillers and densely compacted under pressure/ Hardboard is used for lining walls and ceilings, and also for shop fitting and the erection of exhibition stands.
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In decorating, harmony refers to a scheme or colour combination which presents a pleasing appearance because of its use of colours which are close to one another on the colour circle and have been used in their proper tonal order.
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In architecture the haunches of an arch are the parts on each side of the crown of an arch. Each haunch may be considered as from one half to two thirds of the half arch.
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The Haymarket Theatre is one of the principal theatres of London. It was built in 1702, opened in 1720, made a theatre royal, and rebuilt in 1767, when it was under the management of Foote. In 1821 it was again rebuilt under Nash.
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In architecture a header is a brick or stone laid with its shorter face or head in the surface of the wall.

In framing, a header is the piece of timber fitted between two trimmers, and supported by them, and carrying the ends of the tailpieces.
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In architecture a heading course is a course consisting only of headers.
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In architecture a headway is a clear space under an arch, girder, or the like, sufficient to allow easy passing underneath.
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Hecatompedon was a name given to the old Parthenon at Athens probably because the width across the stylobate measured 100 Greek feet.
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In architecture a heel is the lower end of a timber in a frame, as a post or rafter. In the United States the term specifically refers to the obtuse angle of the lower end of a rafter set sloping.
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In architecture a helix is a caulicole or little volute under the abacus of the Corinthian capital.
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In architecture a hemiglyph is a half channel or groove in the edge of the triglyph in the Doric order.
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In masonry herringbone work is one in which the stones are laid aslant instead of being bedded flat. It is very commonly found in rough walling, and occasionally, in the Norman style, in ashlar work. It is more frequent in the Norman than any other style, but it is not to be relied upon as evidence of the date of a building. It is sometimes found introduced in the walls in bands, apparently for ornament, but it has often been manifestly adopted for convenience, in order to enable the workmen to level off the work at each course, which could not well be done in any other way with stones of
irregular shapes and sizes. In herringbone work, by varying the inclination of the stones, it is easy to preserve a level. The interior, or backing, of Roman walls, is often of irregular herringbone work, formed in this way.
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Herse is another term for a portcullis, so called from its resemblance to a framework termed hercia, fashioned like a harrow, whereon lighted candles were placed on the obsequies of distinguished persons. The entrance gateways of many castles were defended by two portcullises, as at Warwick castle, where one of them was lowered every night, for greater security.
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In architecture hexastyle describes a structure - normally a portico or temple - as having six columns in front.
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In masonry, a hick-joint is a species of pointing in which mortar is inserted between the courses and joints of a wall, and made truly level or smooth with the surface.
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Hiling or hyling was an old architectural term for covering or roof of a building. The word was also sometimes corruptly used for aisle.
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Picture of Hinge

Hinges are the joints on which doors, gates, etc, turn. During the Middle Ages, even at an early period, they were frequently made very conspicuous, and were ornamented with scrolls: several of the illuminations of Caedmon's metrical Paraphrase of Scripture History, which is considered to have been written about the year 1000, exhibits doors with ornamental hinges, and another is represented in an illumination in a Pontifical at Rouen, written at about the same, or a rather earlier, period. Old Norman hinges are to be found on the (inner) west door at Woking church, Surrey, and at Compton, Berkshire. At this period they have not in general much scroll-work attached to them, and the turns are often very stiff; the principal branches at the head of the hinge frequently represent the letter C.

In the Early English style, the hinges were often ornamented with most elaborate and graceful scroll-work, nearly covering the door, and this was sometimes further enriched with leaves on the curls, and occasionally with animals' heads; the nails also were made ornamental, and the main bands were stamped with various minute patterns. Good specimens of this kind may be seen at St. Alban's abbey, and St. George's chapel, Windsor; the south door of Sempringham church, Lincolnshire; the doors of the chapter-house of York Minster; the south door of Durham cathedral; Faringdon, and Uffington churches, Berkshire, etc.

In plain buildings, Early English hinges were frequently devoid of all ornament, or had the
ends terminating in simple curls, with a few small branches on each side of the main band. In the Decorated style they continued to be occasionally used of the same elaborate kind, with little if any variation, except occasionally in the character of the leaves on the scrolls. Of this description fine examples exist on the doors of the hall in Merton college, Oxford. Ornamental hinges were by no means so common in this style as in the Early English, the increased use of wood panellings and tracery having in great measure superseded such kind of decorations. In the Perpendicular style hinges are rarely ornamented, except on plain doors, and then have usually only a fleur-de-lys, or some similar decoration, at the ends of the strap.
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In architecture a hip is the external angle formed by the meeting of two sloping sides or skirts of a roof, which have their wall plates running in different directions.
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In architecture a hip knob is a finial, ball, or other ornament at the intersection of the hip rafters and the ridge. On Ecclesiastical edifices, previous to the Reformation, crosses were usually fixed in these situations, but on other buildings ornaments of various kinds were used; when applied to gables with barge-boards, the lower part of the hip-knob frequently terminated in a pendant.
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In architecture a hip moulding is a moulding on the hip of a roof, covering the hip joint of the slating or other roofing.
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In architecture a hip rafter is a rafter extending from the wall plate to the ridge in the angle of a hip roof.
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Picture of Hip_Roof

In architecture a hip roof is a roof having sloping ends and sloping sides.
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In architecture a hip tile is a tile made to cover the hip of a roof.
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Hippodrome was the Greek name for the public place where the horse and chariot races were held. In Byzantine times the hippodrome at Constantinople (Istanbul) acquired great renown, and factions originating in the hippodrome caused perpetual confusion in all departments of the public service. The name is sometimes applied to a modern circus.
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In architecture a hoarding is a screen of boards enclosing a house and materials while builders are at work.
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A hoarstone is a stone marking out the boundary of an estate.
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A hob was formerly a chimney-corner used for keeping items warm, particularly beer.
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A hogan (from the Navaho qoghan, meaning a house) is a Navaho Indian house or lodge usually made from earth held in place by upright or sloping timbers.
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In architecture a hogback is an upward curve or very obtuse angle in the upper surface of any member, as of a timber laid horizontally. It is the opposite of a camber.
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In architecture a hollow newel is an opening in the centre of a winding staircase in place of a newel post, the stairs being supported by the wall. The term is also used to describe the string piece or rail winding around the well of such a staircase.
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The holy-water stone or holy-water stock was a stone stoup for holy water placed near the entrances of churches.
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In architecture a hood moulding is a projecting moulding over the head of an arch, forming the outermost member of the archivolt.
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Picture of Horned_Can

The horned can is a Scottish, plain, clay chimney pot comprising a fairly straight cylinder with a thickened base and downwards facing flues or horns around the body to increase draw and reduce down draught.
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A hostrie was an inn or a house of entertainment for travellers and others.
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A hothouse is a building for the cultivation of plants too delicate to grow in the open air. It is built chiefly of glass, and resembles a greenhouse in its structure and arrangements, except that artificial heat is kept up all the year round. Some are heated by steam, others by hot water in tubes, and others by the introduction of hot air.
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Picture of Hour-Glass_Stand

An hour-glass stand was a bracket or frame made of iron for receiving the hour-glass, which was often placed near the pulpit, subsequent to the Reformation, and especially during the Commonwealth. Specimens are not infrequently met with in country churches, as at Wolvercot and Beckley, Oxfordshire.
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A house is a building for human habitation.
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In architecture a housing is a space taken out of one solid, to admit the insertion of part of another, as the end of one timber in the side of another. The term also describes a niche for a statue.
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A humpback bridge (formerly known as a crumpbacked bridge) is an arched road bridge having a sharp incline and decline and usually a narrow roadway.
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A hutch was a chest or locker in which sacred utensils, etc, were kept.
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In architecture a hyperthyrion is that part of the architrave which is over a door or window.
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In ancient Roman baths, rooms, etc, a hypocaust was an arched chamber in which a fire was kindled for the purpose of giving heat to the rooms above it. The heat was distributed by means of tubes of earthenware and hollow passages under the floor, the heat rising through the floor and heating the room above, hence its popular name of under-floor heating.
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In architecture the term hypostyle is applied to something resting upon columns or constructed by means of columns. The term is especially applied to the great hall at Karnak.
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